Exploiting today's opportunitiesi

Pure hydrogen currently has an unprecedented political and business impetus, and the number of policies and projects around the world is growing rapidly. It was now time to increase the scale of the technology and reduce costs to allow for widespread use of hydrogen. The pragmatic and feasible recommendations for governments and industry will make the most of this growing momentum.

Hydrogen and energy have a long history in common - they propel the first internal combustion engines over 200 years ago to become an integral part of the modern refinery industry. It is light, easy to store, dense, and does not produce direct emissions of pollutants or greenhouse gases. However, for hydrogen to significantly contribute to the transition to clean energy, it must be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent, such as transport, buildings and energy production.

Comprehensive and independent studies can ensure the future of hydrogen and determines what is happening now; ways in which hydrogen can help achieve a clean, safe and affordable energy future; and how we can fulfill its potential.

The demand for hydrogen, which has increased more than threefold since 1975, is constantly growing - almost entirely supplied from fossil fuels, with 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal going to hydrogen production.

As a result, hydrogen production is responsible for CO 2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, which corresponds to the combined CO 2 emissions in the United Kingdom and Indonesia.

Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels and biomass, from water or from a mixture of both. Natural gas is currently the main source of hydrogen production, accounting for about three-quarters of annual global hydrogen production at around 70 million tonnes. This represents around 6% of global gas consumption. Coal is followed by gas because of its dominant role in China, and a small portion is produced from the use of oil and electricity.

The cost of producing hydrogen from natural gas is influenced by a number of technical and economic factors, with gas prices and capital expenditure being the most important.

Fuel costs are the largest cost component, representing 45% to 75% of production costs. Low gas prices in the Middle East, Russia and North America cause one of the lowest costs of hydrogen production. Gas importers such as Japan, Korea, China and India have to fight higher gas import prices, and this results in higher hydrogen production costs.

While less than 0.1% of global hydrogen production for the present day comes from water electrolysis, with decreasing costs of electricity from renewable sources, in particular solar and wind, interest in electrolytic hydrogen is growing.

Due to the demand for this fuel of the future, Violet Line has started researching the production of hydrogen from fly ashes. Please contact us for further information.